Biology 101 Week 8 Final Exam

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Biology 101 Week 8 Final Exam

Question 1 (2 points)

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A new biological molecule has been found that is mostly hydrophobic in its structure. It will most likely be classified as a

Question 1 options:

A. Carbohydrate

B. Nucleic acid

C. Protein

D. Polysaccharide

E. Lipid

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Question 2 (2 points)

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In a scientific experiment, what is the control group?

Question 2 options:

Serves as a basis of comparison with the experimental group

The group that is subjected to the factor whose effect is being tested in the experiment

A group that allows for the simultaneous testing of multiple variables

A control group is required for the validity of discovery science

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Question 3 (2 points)

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The pH scale states that when pH is less than 7, the solution is basic.

Question 3 options:

True

False

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Question 4 (2 points)

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What can you use to determine the number of covalent bonds an atom will form?

Question 4 options:

The number of valence shells an atom has

The number of protons the atom has

The number of electrons the atom has in each valence shells

The number of electrons the atom has in the outer valence shell

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Question 5 (2 points)

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Some organisms have special organelles called contractile vacuoles that continually eliminate excess water from the cell. What does the presence of these organelles tell you about the environment that these organisms live in?

Question 5 options:

Isotonic relative to the organism

Hypotonic relative to the organism

Hypertonic relative to the organism

Acidic relative to the organism

Basic relative to the organism

Question 6 (2 points)

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Select the element that is not one of the four most common elements in living matter.

Question 6 options:

A ) carbon

B ) hydrogen

C ) nitrogen

D ) oxygen

E ) phosphorous

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Question 7 (2 points)

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A researcher planted seeds from four types of quinoa (Types A, B, C) in a greenhouse to determine which type of quinoa grew the tallest. The plants were grown for 10 days and measured. The results are shown below. Choose the data set that demonstrates that Type B quinoa grew the tallest.

Question 7 options:

A = 30 cm, B = 21 cm, C= 15 cm, D= 12 cm.

A = 22 cm, B = 27 cm, C = 11 cm D= 4 cm

A = 30 cm, B = 12 cm, C= 28 cm, D= 1 cm

A = 21 cm, B = 12 cm, C= 20 cm, D= 15 cm

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Question 8 (2 points)

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What are the monomer 'building blocks' that make up proteins?

Question 8 options:

A. Monosaccharides

B. Glycerol molecules

C. Amino acids

D. Fatty acids

E. Cholesterol molecules

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Question 9 (2 points)

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DNA nucleotides include ______.

Question 9 options:

uracil, guanine, adenine, and cytosine

thymine, guanine, adenine, and cytosine

thymine, uracil, adenine, and cytosine

thymine, guanine, adenine, and uracil

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Question 10 (2 points)

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Active transport requires energy in order to move molecules ____________ the concentration gradient while simple and facilitated diffusion require no energy to move molecules __________ the concentration gradient.

Question 10 options:

A) Along ; against

B) Along ; along

C) Against ; along

D) Against ; against

Question 11 (2 points)

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Which of the following is a feature of prokaryotic cells but not eukaryotic cells?

Question 11 options:

pili

cell wall

flagella

DNA

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Question 12 (2 points)

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Which of the following is true regarding chemical bonds?

Question 12 options:

a) Chemical bonds are an unbreakable union of two atoms

b) Chemical bonds are an energetic interaction, or relationship, that occurs between two atoms

c) Chemical bonds are a physical linkage of two atoms

d) Chemical bonds are the result of energy emitted by radioactive atoms

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Question 13 (2 points)

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Which of these would be a valid scientific hypothesis?

Question 13 options:

Earthworms and humans share a common genetic code.

Humans are controlled by forces beyond our understanding.

Humans should help in the conservation of plant species.

Human history is determined by a series of supernatural events.

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Question 14 (2 points)

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Which of the following structures can perform all the activities required for life?

Question 14 options:

Organelles

Nuclei

Plasma membrane

Cells

DNA molecules

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Question 15 (2 points)

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https://learn.umuc.edu/d2l/common/viewFile.d2lfile/Database/NzgxMjY2/phylogenetic%20tree.jpg?ou=224039

Based on the following phylogenetic tree, which of the following conclusions are *NOT* correct? Each letter represents a hypothetical species.

Question 15 options:

A) A and E share a common ancestor

B) B is one of A's ancestors

C) E and D are more closely related to each other than to C

D) C is more closely related to E than to B

E) A and B are closely related

Question 16 (2 points)

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You are taking a cruise from California to Hawaii. About halfway there the ship begins to sink. You are able to board a lifeboat, but now you are floating in the ocean waiting to be rescued. After several days you are so thirsty that you bend over the side of the boat and drink lots of salty seawater. What happens to your body?

Question 16 options:

A) You throw up because sea salt is toxic to humans.

B) You get thirstier because of osmosis.

C) Salt diffuses into your cells, water follows, your cells start to expand and you feel bloated.

D) Since sea water consist of 96.5% fresh water (and only 3.5% salt) you will feel much better.

E) You get dehydrated because water is unable to cross the semi-permeable membranes of your cells.

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Question 17 (2 points)

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The chemical energy stored in a plant is an example of:

Question 17 options:

kinetic energy.

nuclear energy.

solar energy.

potential energy.

radiant energy.

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Question 18 (2 points)

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Which of the following is a 'metabolic taxicab' that shuttles electrons?

Question 18 options:

A. O3

B. NADH

C. ATP

D. ADP

E. CO2

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Question 19 (2 points)

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Which of the following statements about photosynthesis is NOT correct?

Question 19 options:

The light reactions produce ATP from sunlight energy

The products of photosynthesis are used as reactants in cellular respiration

The products of cellular respiration are used as reactants in photosynthesis

Water is used during photosynthesis to capture the electrons released from excited chlorophyll pigments

The products of the light reactions of photosynthesis are used to produce sugars in the Calvin cycle

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Question 20 (2 points)

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Consider a cell that underwent mitosis but not cytokinesis. What would the result be?

Question 20 options:

One cell with one nucleus containing twice the normal number of chromosomes

One cell with two nuclei, each containing a normal number of chromosomes

Two daughter cells that are unusually small

Two daughter cells with no nucleus

Two daughter cells with twice the number of chromosomes

Question 21 (2 points)

Question 21 saved

If you place a dialysis tubing permeable only to water filled with 10% sucrose solution into a beaker filled with a 30% solution of sucrose, what would you expect?

Question 21 options:

water flows into the dialysis tubing

water flows out of the dialysis tubing

nothing happens

sucrose diffuses out of the tubing

sucrose diffuses into the tubing

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Question 22 (2 points)

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Chemosynthesis supports which of the following ecosystems?

Question 22 options:

salt marsh

forest

estuary

desert

hydrothermal vent

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Question 23 (2 points)

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At one point, you were just an undifferentiated, single cell. You are now made of many cells; some of these cells function as liver cells, some as muscle cells, some as red blood cells, while others play different roles. What name is given to the process that is responsible for this?

Question 23 options:

Gene expression

Regeneration

Carcinogenesis

Cellular differentiation

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Question 24 (2 points)

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Which of the following statements about mitosis and meiosis is *NOT* true?

Question 24 options:

The cells resulting from meiosis are diploid and the cells resulting from mitosis are haploid.

Meiosis and meiosis both starts with one cell, meiosis ends with four and mitosis with two.

Mitosis produces new cells for growth and repair, meiosis produces gametes.

Mitosis goes through cytokinesis once, meiosis goes through cytokinesis twice.

Cross over happens in meiosis, but not in mitosis.

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Question 25 (2 points)

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How do hypotheses differ from theories?

Question 25 options:

Theories are more comprehensive than hypotheses.

Theories must be testable; hypotheses do not need to be testable.

Theories must be testable; hypotheses do not need to be testable.

Hypotheses are derived from experimentation, whereas theories are derived from observation.

Question 26 (2 points)

Question 26 saved

Your mother is heterozygous for a dominant trait and your father is homozygous recessive for the same trait. What was your percentage change of inheriting the dominant trait?

Question 26 options:

A) 0%

B) 35%

C) 50%

D) 75%

E) 100%

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Question 27 (2 points)

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If you cross a pea plant exhibiting the dominant phenotype purple flowers, with a recessive plant, with white flowers, then?

Question 27 options:

The only possible outcome is purple plants.

The only possible outcome is white plants.

The only possible outcome is purple and white plants.

The possible outcomes is purple plants or purple and white plants.

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Question 28 (2 points)

Question 28 saved

What is a family tree called that is used to follow human matings that have already occurred?

Question 28 options:

Test cross

Karyotype

Sex-linked record

Pedigree

DNA analysis record

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Question 29 (2 points)

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https://learn.umuc.edu/d2l/common/viewFile.d2lfile/Database/Mzc3Mzc0OA/pedigree.png?ou=224039

What is the genotype for the individual labeled "1" in the pedigree below?

Question 29 options:

AA

Aa

aa

Either AA or Aa

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Question 30 (2 points)

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A chemotherapy drug affects the enzyme DNA polymerase. In which part of the cell cycle does it inhibit cell division?

Question 30 options:

A) Metaphase

B) S phase

C) G1

D) Cytokinesis

E) Prophase

Question 31 (2 points)

Question 31 saved

Why do some scientists argue that viruses are non-living?

Question 31 options:

Viruses evolve

Viruses are able to reproduce

Viruses have an organized and complex structure

Viruses are not made of cells

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Question 32 (2 points)

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Proteins are made based on information stored in genes through the process of ______ and ______

Question 32 options:

respiration………translation

translation……….mutation

transcription……..translation

respiration……transcription

mRNA………traits

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Question 33 (2 points)

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Elephants travel long distances in search of food. Using vibrations felt in the ground, family members traveling separately can communicate with each other. Based on your knowledge of evolution, the ability to communicate over long distances probably developed ___________________________.

Question 33 options:

slowly over millions of years

by accident

over a ten year period

as a strategy to decrease reproduction

as a way to communicate with humans

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Question 34 (2 points)

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A biome is defined by all of the following except

Question 34 options:

A. Characteristic vegetation

B. Number of trophic levels

C. Soil types

D. Part of a realm

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Question 35 (2 points)

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Cells with a higher concentration of ions than the surrounding medium tend to ______.

Question 35 options:

stay about the same size and shape

expand

shrink

divide

Question 36 (2 points)

Question 36 saved

Which of these statements best explains how genes and proteins are related?

Question 36 options:

A ) Genes are segments of DNA that code for proteins.

B ) Proteins are segments of DNA that code for genes.

C ) Genes are segments of proteins that code for DNA.

D ) Proteins are the building blocks of genes.

E ) Genes are the building blocks of proteins.

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Question 37 (2 points)

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Destruction of a protein's shape is called ______.

Question 37 options:

hydrolysis

denaturation

a dehydration reaction

hydrogenation

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Question 38 (2 points)

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Consider a gene that is 900 nucleotides long. How many amino acids are in the protein coded by this gene?

Question 38 options:

900

300

100

1

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Question 39 (2 points)

Question 39 saved

Enzymes, which are usually _______, increase the rate of a reaction by ______.

Question 39 options:

steroids; increasing the temperature of the substrates

carbohydrates; contributing electrons to the reaction

proteins; decreasing activation energy

lipids; changing the pH of the substrates

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Question 40 (2 points)

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The form of RNA that is complementary to DNA and carries the code from the DNA to the site where the protein is synthesized is ______________________________________.

Question 40 options:

A ) messenger RNA

B ) nuclear RNA

C ) ribosomal RNA

D ) transfer RNA

Question 41 (2 points)

Question 41 saved

How can one recognize polygenic inheritance?

Question 41 options:

A mating between a homozygous and a heterozygous individual produces more than the expected number of offspring expressing the dominant trait.

All of the alleles of the gene for that trait are equally expressed.

The trait varies along a continuum in the population.

Pleiotropy occurs.

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Question 42 (2 points)

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Researchers are studying slider turtles. Slider turtles hatch on the beach and travel to the sea. The researchers discover that the larger baby turtles were more likely to survive than the smaller baby turtles. They hypothesized that the larger turtles could move more quickly toward the water than the smaller turtles, and therefore, the larger turtles reduced their exposure to predators. The survival advantage for the larger baby turtles is a result of __________________________.

Question 42 options:

A ) natural selection

B ) genetic engineering

C ) diversity

D ) artificial selection

E ) migration

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Question 43 (2 points)

Question 43 saved

The genome of the bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, is composed of 19% guanine. Which of the following is also true of its double stranded genome?

Question 43 options:

A. 19% cytosine

B. 62% adenine

C. 31% thymine

D. 19% uracil

E. Both A and C are correct

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Question 44 (2 points)

Question 44 saved

Which of the following variations could be subject to natural selection?

Question 44 options:

A dog with short legs due to malnutrition is able to crawl into holes better than his litter mates

A tree is not infested by a ground-dwelling beetle when the homeowner cuts the lower branches

A hyena is born with a spotted fur pattern that allows it to hide in the grass bettwe than his litter mates

A pigeon learns than when its keeper comes near it will be fed

All of these variations may be acted on by natural selection

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Question 45 (2 points)

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In a deciduous oak forest of the American northeast, one example of an abiotic component of the ecosystem would be ____________________________.

Question 45 options:

A ) worms in the soil that feed on plant roots

B ) worms in the soil that feed on dead organic matter

C ) sunlight that filters through the canopy

D ) animals such as deer that migrate through the forest but do not eat in the forest

E ) plants and animals in the same area

uestion 46 (2 points)

Question 46 saved

All of the following are common or recurrent themes in biology except?

Question 46 options:

Organisms grow, develop, and reproduce

Function determines structure

Matter is recycled while energy flows through living systems

Living organisms maintain homeostasis

Evolutionary processes explain both the unity and adaptive diversity of life

Life's components are interconnected and interdependent

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Question 47 (2 points)

Question 47 saved

Why is water so important in controlling the Earth's climates?

Question 47 options:

A. Water vapor is one of the greenhouse gases that help trap heat

B. The water in oceans and lakes stores the energy radiated by the sun and releases it slowly

C. Water may absorb and store a lot of energy by warming up by a few degrees only

D. All of the above

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Question 48 (2 points)

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Scenario: Over the past 60 years, many amphibian species have experienced significant population declines and some species have become extinct. Scientists suspected that local human activities such as the destruction of wetlands, regional pollution, and deforestation were the main reasons for these losses. However, research over the past 20 years reveals significant amphibian population declines in protected areas of the world, such as nature preserves and parks. These global declines suggest widespread problems including increased ultraviolet radiation, acid rain, and disease. In Switzerland, for example, 14 of the 20 native amphibian species are threatened with extinction. Question: Some biologists urge the collection of the few remaining individuals of some of the most threatened amphibian species, to preserve them if they become extinct in the wild. If such captive breeding programs could produce thousands of individuals from just a few of the remaining survivors, why would the species still be threatened?

Question 48 options:

Pollution

A bottleneck effect

Mutations

Artificial selection

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Question 49 (2 points)

Question 49 saved

Several features, or properties, of living things may also be found in nonliving things, such as fire. Of the following, which is the least likely to be found in non-living things?

Question 49 options:

A. Consumption of energy – containing molecules

B. Growth

C. Reproduction

D. Homeostasis

E. Response to external stimuli

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Question 50 (2 points)

Question 50 saved

Species of oak trees periodically have years of large acorn production, followed by years of low production. In years of plenty, squirrel populations will experience an increase. When acorn production drops, squirrel population size will decrease. This is an example of

Question 50 options:

A. A population cycle

B. Net primary production

C. A renewable resource

D. A density-dependent factor

Biology 101 Week 8 Final Exam
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